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Mon, 23 Oct 2017 07:14:01 EDT
After skyrocketing, opioid abuse plateaus but remains too high, national analysis shows
While the breakneck upswing in opioid abuse has leveled off, it remains disturbingly high and does not appear to continue its decline, according to an analysis of national data.
Risk factors for Duchenne muscular dystrophy identified
A new study suggests that more people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy could live longer by identifying and more aggressively treating patients with certain risk factors.
Women who give birth in winter or spring less likely to have postpartum depression
Women who give birth in winter or spring are less likely than women who deliver in the fall or summer to suffer from postpartum depression (PPD), suggests a study of more than 20,000 women. The study also found that women who delivered babies at a higher gestational age (further along in their pregnancy) were less likely to develop PPD, and women who did not have anesthesia, such as an epidural, during delivery had an increased risk.
Ketamine may help treat migraine pain unresponsive to other therapies
Ketamine may help alleviate migraine pain in patients who have not been helped by other treatments, suggests a new study.
Acetaminophen may help reduce postoperative shivering
Administering acetaminophen, such as Tylenol, during surgery may reduce the incidence of postoperative shivering, suggests a new study.
Breast cancer risk quantified based on rare variants and background risk
Rare variants combined with background genetic risk factors may account for many unexplained cases of familial breast cancer, and knowing the specific genes involved could inform choice of prevention and treatment strategies, according to new findings.
Exploring how herpes simplex virus changes when passed between family members
A new study offers a rare glimpse into the genetics of a herpes simplex virus transmission event -- information that may prove useful in future development of therapeutics and vaccines. The study reveals nearly perfect genetic transmission of the virus from a father to his son and lays the foundation for future studies exploring the genetic diversity of this virus.
Pollution responsible for 16 percent of early deaths globally
Diseases caused by pollution were responsible in 2015 for an estimated 9 million premature deaths -- 16 percent of all deaths worldwide, according to a report.
Mountain glaciers shrinking across Western U.S.
A technique using satellites to create twice-yearly elevation maps of US mountain glaciers provides new insight into thinning of glaciers in the lower 48 states.
Health: New protein aggregation measurement tool
A team of scientists have described the synthetic genetic tool they built to quantitatively sense, measure and manipulate protein aggregation in live cells. This may open the door to greater understanding and treatment of a range of maladies from Alzheimer's to type II diabetes.
The skinny on lipid immunology
Scientists reveal new insights into the basis for T cell receptor (TCR) autoreactivity to self-phospholipids, with implications for autoimmune diseases.
The end of pneumonia? New vaccine offers hope
A new vaccine under development provoked an immune response to 72 forms of the bacteria that's responsible for pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis. That's up from the 23 forms of bacteria covered by current immunizations. The new vaccine, which represents the 'most comprehensive' coverage of pneumococcal disease to date, could greatly reduce the number of deaths from the disease.
Prozac in ocean water a possible threat to sea life
Oregon shore crabs exhibit risky behavior when they're exposed to the antidepressant Prozac, making it easier for predators to catch them, according to a new study.
Parents' alcohol use can set the stage for teenage dating violence, study finds
Having a parent with an alcohol use disorder increases the risk for dating violence among teenagers, according to a study.
Microfluidics probe 'cholesterol' of the oil industry
Researchers employ microfluidic devices to show how and why dispersants are able to break up deposits of asphaltene that hinder the flow of crude oil in wellheads and pipelines.
US ocean observation critical to understanding climate change, but lacks long-term national planning
Ocean observing systems are important as they provide information essential for monitoring and forecasting changes in Earth's climate on timescales ranging from days to centuries. A new report finds that continuity of ocean observations is vital to gain an accurate understanding of the climate, and calls for a decadal, national plan that is adequately resourced and implemented to ensure critical ocean information is available to understand and predict future changes.
Creation of coherent states in molecules by incoherent electrons
Coherent states of negative ion resonances in electron-molecule interaction are observed in experiments on e -- H2 and e -- D2 reactions. A forward-backward asymmetry is observed in the ejection of H- ions from H2 in this reaction, whereas the asymmetry in D- from D2 is weaker, but changes direction with electron energy. These results arise from attachment of a single electron to a molecule forming coherent superposition of odd and even parity states of negative ions.
Increase in inflammatory bowel disease in developing world predicted
For the last century, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been a challenge for patients and the medical community in the western world. New research shows that countries outside the western world may now be facing the same pattern of increasing IBD rates.
Metacognition training boosts gen chem exam scores
Students, and people in general, can tend to overestimate their own abilities. But new research shows that students who overcome this tendency score better on final exams. The boost is strongest for students in the lower 25 percent of the class. By thinking about their thinking, a practice called metacognition, these students raised their final exam scores by 10 percent on average -- a full letter grade.
Audit uncovers concerns about the use of electroconvulsive therapy in England
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) continues to be used in England without comprehensive national auditing.
Personal omics data informative for precision health and preventive care
Multi-omics profiling, the measurement and analysis of a person's genome along with other biomolecular traits, is an important step toward personal health management that provides valuable, actionable information, according to new findings.
To vape or not to vape? Probably: Not to vape
E-cigarettes appear to trigger unique immune responses as well as the same ones triggered by regular cigarettes, according to new research.
New quantum simulation protocol developed
Researchers are a step closer to understanding quantum mechanics after developing a new quantum simulation protocol.
Global CO2 emissions stalled for the third year in a row
The annual assessment of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by the JRC and the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) confirms that CO2 emissions have stalled for the third year in a row.
Innovative smart watch and smart ring
Researchers have developed a smart watch that takes the user to another dimension and a smart ring that provides powerful feedback.
Researchers use novel imaging to predict spinal degeneration
A main cause for spinal disc degeneration is thought to be a change in the water content in the intervertebral disk. A research team used a novel magnetic resonance imaging technique, called apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, which directly assessed the movements and dynamics of the water in the intervertebral disk and other spinal structures. The ADC maps provided precise assessments and correlations with degeneration.
RANKL expressed by osteocytes has an important role in orthodontic tooth movement
Researchers have revealed that RANKL expressed by osteocytes is essential for the bone remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement. This result can facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies in orthodontics.
Gamma rays will reach beyond the limits of light
Researchers have discovered a new way to produce high energy photon beams. The new method makes it possible to produce these gamma rays in a highly efficient way, compared with today's technique. The obtained energy is a billion times higher than the energy of photons in visible light. These high intensity gamma rays significantly exceed all known limits, and pave the way towards new fundamental studies.
How obesity promotes breast cancer
Obesity leads to the release of cytokines into the bloodstream which impact the metabolism of breast cancer cells, making them more aggressive as a result. The research team has already been able to halt this mechanism with an antibody treatment.
How the smallest bacterial pathogens outwit host immune defenses by stealth mechanisms
Despite their relatively small genome, mycoplasmas can cause persistent and difficult-to-treat infections in humans and animals. A study has shown how mycoplasmas escape the immune response. Mycoplasmas 'mask' themselves: They use their small genome in a clever way and compensate for the loss of an enzyme that is important for this process. This could be shown for the first time in vivo, thus representing a breakthrough in the research of bacterial pathogens.
'Antelope perfume' keeps flies away from cows
In Africa, tsetse flies transfer the sleeping sickness also to cattle. The damage is estimated to be about 4.6 billion US dollars each year. Experts have developed an innovative way of preventing the disease. Tsetse flies avoid waterbucks, a widespread antelope species in Africa. The scientists imitated the smell of these antelopes.
Chromosomes may be knotted
Little is known about the structures of our genetic material, chromosomes, which consist of long strings that -- according to our experience -- should be likely to become knotted. However, up to now it has not been possible to study this experimentally. Researchers have now found that chromosomes may indeed be knotted.
Carbon coating gives biochar its garden-greening power
New research has demonstrated how composting of biochar creates a very thin organic coating that significantly improves the biochar's fertilizing capabilities.
Can an aspirin a day keep liver cancer away?
A new study found that daily aspirin therapy was significantly associated with a reduced risk in hepatitis B related liver cancer.
Logged tropical rainforests still support biodiversity even when the heat is on
Tropical rainforests continue to buffer wildlife from extreme temperatures even after logging, a new study has revealed.
Physical inactivity and restless sleep exacerbate genetic risk of obesity
Low levels of physical activity and inefficient sleep patterns intensify the effects of genetic risk factors for obesity, according to new results.
Novel 'converter' heralds breakthrough in ultra-fast data processing at nanoscale
Scientists have recently invented a novel 'converter' that can harness the speed and small size of plasmons for high frequency data processing and transmission in nanoelectronics.
Insight into a hidden order seen with high field magnet
A specific uranium compound has puzzled researchers for thirty years. Although the crystal structure is simple, no one understands exactly what is happening once it is cooled below a certain temperature. Apparently, a 'hidden order' emerges, whose nature is completely unknown. Now physicists have characterized this hidden order state more precisely and studied it on a microscopic scale. To accomplish this, they utilized a high-field magnet that permits neutron experiments to be conducted under conditions of extremely high magnetic fields.
'Y' a protein unicorn might matter in glaucoma
A protein shaped like a 'Y' makes scientists do a double-take and may change the way they think about a protein sometimes implicated in glaucoma. The Y is a centerpiece in myocilin, binding four other components nicknamed propellers together like balloons on strings.
Waterside lighting drastically disrupts wildlife in the surrounding ecosystem
Streetlights near waterways attract flying insects from the water and change the predator community living in the grass beneath the lights, new research has found. The findings show that artificial night-time lighting could have implications for the surrounding ecosystem and biodiversity, which should be considered when designing new lighting concepts.
Life goes on for marine ecosystems after cataclysmic mass extinction
One of the largest global mass extinctions did not fundamentally change marine ecosystems, scientists have found.
Delayed word processing could predict patients' potential to develop Alzheimer's disease
A delayed neurological response to processing the written word could be an indicator that a patient with mild memory problems is at an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, research has discovered.
'Selfish brain' wins out when competing with muscle power, study finds
New research on our internal trade-off when physical and mental performance are put in direct competition has found that cognition takes less of a hit, suggesting more energy is diverted to the brain than body muscle. Researchers say the findings support the 'selfish brain' theory of human evolution.
Cool roofs have water saving benefits too
The energy and climate benefits of cool roofs have been well established: By reflecting rather than absorbing the sun's energy, light-colored roofs keep buildings, cities, and even the entire planet cooler. Now a new study has found that cool roofs can also save water by reducing how much is needed for urban irrigation.
Experts recommend fewer lab tests for hospitalized patients
Experts have compiled published evidence and crafted an experience-based quality improvement blueprint to reduce repetitive lab testing for hospitalized patients.
New function in gene-regulatory protein discovered
Researchers show how the protein CBP affects the expression of genes through its interaction with the basal machinery that reads the instructions in our DNA.
NASA's MAVEN mission finds Mars has a twisted magnetic tail
Mars has an invisible magnetic 'tail' that is twisted by interaction with the solar wind, according to new research using data from NASA's MAVEN spacecraft.
New NASA study improves search for habitable worlds
New NASA research is helping to refine our understanding of candidate planets beyond our solar system that might support life.
Maternal diet may program child for disease risk, but better nutrition later can change that
A mother's diet during pregnancy, particularly one that is high-fat, may program her baby for future risk of certain diseases such as diabetes, new research shows. The new study shows that switching the offspring to a new diet -- a low-fat diet, in this case -- can reverse that programming.
The birth of a new protein
A yeast protein that evolved from scratch can fold into a compact three-dimensional shape -- contrary to the general understanding of young proteins. Recent evidence suggests new genes can arise from the non-coding sections, or 'junk,' DNA and that those new genes could code for brand-new proteins. Scientists thought such newly evolved proteins were works-in-progress that could not fold into complex shapes the way more ancient proteins do.
Be concerned about how apps collect, share health data, expert says
Americans should be concerned about how health and wellness apps collect, save and share their personal health data, a medical media expert says.
Eye-catching labels stigmatize many healthy foods
Labels such as organic, fair-trade and cage free may be eye-catching but are often free of any scientific basis and stigmatize many healthy foods, a new study found.
Two-dimensional materials gets a new theory for control of properties
Desirable properties including increased electrical conductivity, improved mechanical properties, or magnetism for memory storage or information processing may be possible because of a theoretical method to control grain boundaries in two-dimensional materials, according to materials scientists.
Climate shifts shorten marine food chain off California
Environmental disturbances such as El NiƱo shake up the marine food web off Southern California, new research shows, countering conventional thinking that the hierarchy of who-eats-who in the ocean remains largely constant over time.
The microbial anatomy of an organ
The first 3-D spatial visualization tool has been developed for mapping 'omics' data onto whole organs. The tool helps researchers and clinicians understand the effects of chemicals, such as microbial metabolites and medications, on a diseased organ in the context of microbes that also inhabit the region. The work could advance targeted drug delivery for cystic fibrosis and other conditions where medications are unable to penetrate.
Research yields test to predict bitter pit disorder in Honeycrisp apples
A test to determine whether bitter pit -- a disorder that blindsides apple growers by showing up weeks or months after picking -- will develop in stored Honeycrisp apples was developed by a team of researchers, promising to potentially save millions of dollars annually in wasted fruit.
Three million Americans carry loaded handguns daily, study finds
An estimated 3 million adult American handgun owners carry a firearm loaded and on their person on a daily basis, and 9 million do so on a monthly basis, new research indicates. The vast majority cited protection as their primary reason for carrying a firearm. It is the first research in more than 20 years to scrutinize why, how often, and in what manner US adults carry loaded handguns.
TBI laws effective at reducing rate of recurrent concussions, new study shows
A recent study from the Center for Injury Research and Policy at Nationwide Children's Hospital done in conjunction with researchers from Colorado School of Public Health at the University at Colorado and Temple University used data from a large, national sports injury surveillance system to determine the effect of state-level TBI laws on trends of new and recurrent concussions among US high school athletes.
More permissive concealed-carry laws linked to higher homicide rates
Easier access to concealed firearms is associated with significantly higher rates of handgun-related homicide, according to a new study.
Field trips of the future?
A biologist examines the benefits and drawbacks of virtual and augmented reality in teaching environmental science.